Pull Issue Short Name and Link to Draft Level Task F Who does it help? How?  
112 2 Change of content AA MATF Users of AT who can't see changes or have trouble perceiving changes on a page. Their AT will say short phrase about new content

Programmatic notification is provided for each change in content that indicates an action was taken or that conveys information, unless one or more of the following is true:

  1. There is an accessibility supported relationship between the new content and the control that triggers it.
  2. The user has been advised of the behavior before using the component.
  3. There are more than 5 notifications per minute.
  4. The change in content is not not a result of a user action AND not related to the the primary purpose of the page.
100 9 Graphic Contrast (Minimum) AA LVTF

People with low vision and cognitive disabilities who have trouble seeing or peceiving information in graphics

The visual presentation of important information in graphical elements has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 against the immediate surrounding background, except for the following:

Thicker lines: where the minimum width of the line is at least 3px the graphic has a contrast ratio of at least 3:1
Incidental: Graphical elements that are not required for the understanding of the graphic, that are pure decoration have no contrast requirement
Alternative: Graphical elements that have an alternative conforming version available from the same page have no contrast requirement
Logotypes: Graphics that are part of a logo or brand name have no minimum contrast requirement.
(Note: 1.4.3's exceptions including logotypes still pertain.)
128 10 User Interface Component Contrast (Minimum) AA LVTF People with low vision and cognitive disabilities who have trouble seeing or peceiving interactive components The visual presentation of

essential graphical objects for user interface component(s) or a border line thereof, and
-the focus and selection indicator(s) of user interface component(s),
-has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 against the immediate surrounding color(s),

except for the situations listed below:

Thicker: A contrast ratio of 3:1 is required where the minimum width and height are at least 3 CSS pixels, for either the graphical object or (one of) their border line(s).
Inactive: Disabled or otherwise inactive user interface components are exempt from this requirement. In all other states (including when the page is scrolled) the contrast requirement is applicable.
97 13 Minimize user errors AA COGA People with cognitive and other disabilities who have trouble filling in forms and knowing where there was a mistake. Common input errors are automatically corrected where the corrections can be reliably made.
116 14 Timeouts A COGA People with low vision and cognitive disabilities who have trouble completing things in time. Where content can time out, the content must also conform to all of the below:

Loss of data
The user can easily return to the same point in a task, without data loss, for a period of at least one week as the default, or via a user-settable option available throughout the task. If the data will only be preserved for a limited time, the user is informed of the length of time that data are preserved at the start of the task.
Timing adjustable
The function to turn off, adjust, or extend timing is controlled by a simple action, and is labeled with simple, understandable language.
The user is informed of timeout limits at the start of the task, including the length of the warning.
135 30 Plain language (Miniumum) A COGA People with cognitive and reading disabilities who have trouble understanding complex sentences and vocabulary.

Provide clear and simple language in instructions, labels, navigational elements, and error messages, which require a response to continue, so that all of the following are true:

For instructions, labels, and navigational elements:
Simple tense

Use the present tense and active voice.

Simple, clear and common words

Use words or phrases that are most-frequently used for the current context, unless it will result in a loss of meaning or clarity. This includes not using abbreviations, words, or phrases, unless they are the common form to refer to concepts for beginners. Where word frequencies are known for the context, they can be used.

Double negatives

Double negatives are not used.
Concrete wording
Concrete wording in which words are used according to their common meanings or definitions. Metaphors and figurative language are not used unless they can be automatically replaced with literal text based on user settings.
Also on controls: The words on controls and labels identify an element's function.

Also on instructions: Each step in instructions is identified, and literal language is used.


When a passive voice or a tense (other than present tense) is clearer. Other voices or tenses may be used when it has been shown, via user testing, to be easier to understand, friendlier, or appropriate.
In languages where present tense and active voice do not exist, or are not clearer in the language of the content, use the tense and the voice that are clearest for the content.
When describing or discussing past or future events, the present tense is not required.
If the writing style is an essential part of the main function of the site, such as a game, a literary work, or teaching new terms.
Where less common words are found to be easier to understand for the audience. Such findings are supported by user testing that includes users with cognitive disabilities.
The writing style items may be replaced for a location or type of content in which user testing has shown a more effective writing style to aid comprehension for people with cognitive disabilities. Such as for content written in a specific natural language.
The content will be penalized for not conforming to a given writing style (such as a CV, dissertation, or Ph.D. proposal).

129 32 Provide Support AA COGA People with cognitive and reading disabilities who have trouble understanding complex sentences and vocabulary. Content is provided that helps users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, relative and cardinal directions, forms and non-standard controls.
38 Undo AA COGA People with cognitive and other disabilities who may take an action that causes trouble. Users are provided with the ability to undo an action and to correct mistakes such that:

a user can go back steps in a process via a clearly labeled action; or
the user can repair information via a clearly labeled action and get back to the place they were at, via a clearly labeled action, without unwanted loss of data.
98 47 Interruptions (minimum) A COGA People with cognitive and other disabilities who may be thrown off the task at hand by interuptions. There is an easily available mechanism to postpone and suppress interruptions and changes in content unless they are initiated by the user or involve an emergency.
121 49 Familiar Design (Minimum) A COGA People with cognitive and other disabilities who may be thrown off by a new UI design pattern. Help, navigation to help and search forms are easily identifiable and available to the user in one or more of the following ways:

Platform specific
A platform specific user interface design.
Adaptive interface
An adaptive user interface design that can be personalized.
User interface from a prior version
A user interface design that was used successfully by users in a prior version of the application.
Exception: The style is an essential part of the main function of the site, such as for a game
115 50 Extra Symbols AA COGA People with cognitive and other disabilities who better understand content if their are supporting images, symbols, or icons. A mechanism is available such that controls that are used to reach, or are part of, a critical service, and each instruction that contains important information that directly relates to a critical service, is preceded by a symbol or picture, which relates to the topic of the control or instruction.
89 58 Linearization A LVTF People with tunnel vision, low vision or other disabilities who may miss part of the viewport, or may have zoomed into a page only to fine it necessary to horizontally scroll each line to read it. A mechanism is available to view content as a single column, except for parts of the content where the spatial layout is essential to the function and understanding of the content.
60 Target Size A MATF People on mobile devices who may have trouble hitting the taget due to dexterity disabilities. The size of each interactive target in relation to the visible display at the default viewport size is at least:

• 44px by 44px for pointer inputs with coarse pointing accuracy (such as a touchscreen)
• 24px by 24px for pointer inputs with fine pointing accuracy (such as a mouse, trackpad or stylus)

With the exception of inline link, button or control which have no requirements unless it performs essential functionality, or is the only way to perform an action. Then one dimension is 44px and the other is at least 22px.
132 61 Pointer gestures A MATF People who cannot use pressure, tilt, rotate etc. controls on a stylus, or multi finger gestures, primarily on mobile and other touch surfaces Functionality requiring complex or timed pointer gestures or multi-pointer gestures can also be operated with simple pointer gestures.
131 63 Touch with Assistive Technology A MATF Screen reader users who'se software interupts the swipes and uses them to operate the screen reader software. All functions available by touch are still available by touch after platform assistive technology that remaps touch gestures is turned on.
111 65 Accidental Activation A MATF   For single pointer activation, at least one of the following is true:

-Activation is on the up-event, either explicitly or implicitly as a platform's generic activation/click event;
-A mechanism is available that allows the user to choose the up-event as an option;
-Confirmation is provided, which can dismiss activation;
-Activation is reversible;
-Timing of activation is essential and waiting for the up-event would invalidate the activity.
144 66 Pointer inputs with additional sensors A MATF   All pointer functionality can be operated using screen coordinate information, without requiring additional pointer sensor information.
138 67 Device sensors A MATF   All functionality of the content can be operated without requiring specific device sensor information unless the device sensor is essential for the function and not using it would invalidate the activity.
139 68 Speech Input A MATF   All functionality of the content does not obstruct a user’s ability to access the commands through speech input. (Level A)
133 69 Single key shortcut alternative AA MATF   Single character shortcuts are not the only way activate a control, unless a mechanism is available to turn them off or remap them to shortcuts with two or more characters.
142 70 Orientation AA MATF   Content is not locked to a specific orientation, and functionality of the content is operable in all orientations, except where orientation is essential for use of the content.
75 Popup Interference AA LVTF   For informational content that appears on hover or focus, one of the following is true:

Turn Off: the informational content can be turned off
Not obscure: the informational content does not obsure the triggering content
141 76 Printing AA LVTF   If content can printed, the following are true:

Content can be resized up to 200% without loss of content or functionality;
Changes Reflected:
User changes to letter spacing, line spacing, font family, and color are reflected in the printed content.
120 77 Resize content A LVTF   Content can be resized to 400% without loss of content or functionality, and without requiring two-dimensional scrolling except for parts of the content where fixed spatial layout is necessary to use or meaning.
124 78 Adapting Text AA LVTF   No loss of content or functionality on a webpage is caused by overriding:

font family to Verdana, or
foreground and background to white on black, or
line height of all text to 1.5, letter spacing to 0.12em, and word spacing to 0.16em.
96 18 Animation from interactions A ADHOC   For significant animation triggered by a user action that is not an essential part of the action, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop or hide the animation whilst still performing the same action.

Significant animation: animation which continues for more than 3 seconds or is synchronized with a user action and persists for the duration of the action, and affects more than 1/3 of the viewport.